Assess the extent to which social enterprises assist Black and racialized Canadians in overcoming socioeconomic barriers.

Identifying Change

Identify effective practices of social enterprises serving Black and racialized groups.


Determine the mechanisms through which social enterprises promote social and economic integration.

Principal Investigator:

Dr. Patience Adamu

Dr. Patience Adamu is an impassioned champion of diversity, equity and inclusion with over 15 years of experience. Currently, she serves as a Director of EDI of a Canadian corporation working to cultivate a more diverse and equitable workforce. She holds a PhD in Policy Studies from Toronto Metropolitan University. Her doctoral research focused on “How Does Blackness Affect Labour Market Outcomes and Experiences in Ontario and Quebec”, reflecting her commitment to examining and redressing inequities faced by Black communities…

Canada's Labour Force Participation Rate

This study will help provide Canadians...

25 Social Purpose Organizations

This study is interested in how work integration social enterprises impact the lives of Black participants. The literature demonstrates that the labour market challenges faced by Black Canadians are distinct from those faced by others, thus a study that includes Canadians from other races will allow us to track long-term trends that each group faces despite a shared criminal justice history, or not.

Employment & Income (socio-economic integration)

Health and Well-Being (physical and mental health)

Cultural and Social (Ability to navigate the different Canadian landscapes)

The study will examine:

How do work integration social enterprises ensure that those most marginalized (Black participants with experience with the criminal justice system) gain labour market access, health and wellness and social justice?
How do permanent and temporary WISE programs support the reintegration of people attempting to enter the labour market with criminal records? What are some long-term implications?
How can transitional work opportunities through social enterprises help build self-efficacy and personal agency in Black participants with gaps in employment? What elements of the experience (skill development, social connections, structure/routine etc.) are most impactful in shaping one's perspective and identity?
In what ways can involvement in a social enterprise transform perspectives on concepts like "work," "productivity," and "contribution to community"? How might these expanded definitions of traditionally narrow constructs influence goals, values and life directions beyond the bounds of the program itself?

Longitudinal Study

The Longitudinal Study will examine the subjects over a 4-5 year period to analyse patterns, behaviors and trends over the term, while publishing a non-fictional documentary.



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